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The working principle of polymer lithium ion battery

2022-02-26
Polymer lithium-ion battery, a new type of battery with higher energy density, miniaturization, thinning, light weight, high safety, long cycle life and low cost.
Lithium-ion batteries currently have two types: liquid lithium-ion batteries (LIB) and polymer lithium-ion batteries (PLIB). Among them, the liquid lithium-ion battery refers to a secondary battery in which the Li* intercalation compound is the positive and negative electrodes. The positive electrode uses lithium compound LiCoOz, LiNiO2 or LiMn2O4, and the negative electrode uses lithium-carbon interlayer compound LixCs. The typical battery system is:

Positive reaction: LiCo02=Li1-xCoO2+XLi*+xe-
Negative reaction: 6C+xLi++xe’=Lixc-
Overall battery reaction: LiCoO2+6C=Li-xCoO2+LixC-

The principle of polymer lithium-ion battery is the same as that of liquid lithium, and the important difference is that the electrolyte is different from that of liquid lithium. The important structure of the battery includes three elements: positive electrode, negative electrode and electrolyte. The so-called polymer lithium-ion battery means that at least one or more of these three important structures use polymer materials as an important battery system. In the currently developed polymer lithium-ion battery systems, polymer materials are mainly used in positive electrodes and electrolytes. The positive electrode material includes conductive polymers or inorganic compounds commonly used in lithium-ion batteries. The electrolyte can be solid or colloidal polymer electrolytes, or organic electrolytes. Generally, lithium-ion technology uses liquid or colloidal electrolytes. Sturdy secondary packaging to hold flammable active ingredients adds weight and limits dimensional flexibility. There is no excess electrolyte in the polymer lithium-ion process, so it is more stable and less prone to dangerous situations caused by overcharging, collision or other damage to the battery, and excessive use.